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Malta became a Carthaginian colony with a difference. Since the island was not on the main trade route between Carthage, Sicily, Sardinia and the western colonies, Malta preserved its Phoenician culture and only acquired a Punic character very gradually. This deep-rooted Phoenician-Punic culture persisted until at least the first century A. Relevant information already exists both from archaeological and archaeoastronomy surveys, though the extent of the data is limited. A good example from archaeology is the study of burial patterns and cultural diversity between B.

The most preferred orientation is the west, but in other locations the burials point south, south-east and south-west. Another archaeological study notes that the orientations of some Phoenician tombs of the seventh to sixth century B. From archaeoastronomy, there is the work by Belmonte and colleagues who measured the orientations of the Punic.

In Malta, the tombs typically consist of a rectangular shaft about 2m long and 1. Access to the bottom of the shaft is usually facilitated by means of three narrow steps on one side of the shaft or by a series of footholds. Occasionally there is a bench at the bottom stretching along one of the sides. Many of the tombs occur in groups of two to four separated by a few metres but much larger groups are found; the largest single cemetery contains tombs.

In the majority of burials the body was interred but occasionally the dead were cremated. After inhumation, the burial chamber was sealed with a flat stone and the shaft filled with stones, soil and debris to form a mound. Archaeologists have recorded tombs so far, but unfortunately urban development in modern times has contributed to the complete destruction and loss of many known tombs, and others that were unearthed during construction works but never reported.

In effect, the orientations of the long axes of 63 tombs were recorded as well as the orientations of 37 burial chambers of those tombs for which it could be ascertained, without excavation. The Maltese lslands are formed of sedimentary limestone and there is no reason to expect any magnetic anomaly. In three cases, the azimuth of the central axis was measured either because the shape of the shaft was distinctly trapezoidal or it had a curved edge. Five tombs with a square plan presented another difficulty which was resolved by measuring only the axes whose directions were similar to those of adjacent tombs and ignoring the directions at right angles to them.

This decision conforms to the pattern observed in this study and in previous workg that tombs in the same area tend to have similar azimuths, though this is not a rigid rule. When the orientations of the long axes two azimuths for each tomb are aggregated in 20" bands and plotted radially Figure 1. Figure l. Orientations of the long axes of 63 shaft tombs in Malta. Except that there is concentration of twelve tombs with azimuths between " and " which can hardly be a chance occurrence.

These have a mean azimuth of " and an angular standard deviation of 6. Tentatively, other looser concentrations can be proposed in the general directions of E five tombs , W five tombs and SE four tombs. If the orientations were originally determined astronomically then the azimuths should convert to declinations that are significant astronomically. Alternatively, if originally no importance was given to astronomy in determining the orientations then the azimuths would convert to a random distribution of declinations.

Correspondingly, if the orientations were determined by local topography then the azirnuths would be related to significant topographic features and the lie of the land, while the declinations would either be distributed randomly or some of them may correspond to an astronomical target by chance. I When the declinations of both directions of the long axes of the shaft tombs S are plotted as histograms Figure 3, above the clearest signal is a definite interest in Figure 2.

For the burial chambers, Figure 3 below exhibits sharp peaks at declinations " to -SO0, that correspond to approximately to the culmination of the sun, the moon and al1 other celestial bodies, and declinations " to ". There is also a broad peak centred on declination 0, possibly related to sunrise and sunset at the equinoxes. The broad band with a mean azimuth " - " seems tantalisingly close to the E-W direction and consequently to sunrise and sunset at the equinoxes.

Yet the axes of the majority of tombs in this band point 10" to 20" away from this direction. A more plausible explanation is related to the fact that many of the measured tombs are found on the slopes of one of the main ridges of Malta. It appears that the tornbs are cut parallel the ridges possibly so that the tomb excavators could take advantage of naturally occurring solution pits which they could shape and deepen as required.

In conclusion, the orientations of the burial chambers are more indicative of interest in astronomy than the orientations of the long axes of the shaft tombs. While both groups of orientations exhibit a clear preference for the approximate N-S direction, which must have been determined astronomically, it is the burial chambers which indicate interest in the rising, setting or climbing sun.

These conclusions can only be tentative because of the Iimitations of the accuracy of the measurements and the relatively small sample of tombs that could be measured. Mory Turton Combridge, ond S. Aubet believes thoi moliese pottery of ihis period is closely reloied io thoi of the western phoenicion colonies. Moscoti mointoins thot it shows connections with the coostol oreo of ihe Neor Eosi. By measuring theorientations of their main axeswith a precision theodolite, it was found that thefortresses differ considerably from each other in orientation, in spiteof their similar geometrical design, and frorn the cardinal points.

Alternativesuggestions for the deviation in orientation are presented. They are known for their precise layout. Their ground plans aredominated by a perfectly circular ring-rampart divided into four segments of equal length by thegates for two straight roads that meet at right angles in thecentre of the ramparts.

Theconstruction isenhanced by thefact that the roadsseem to bealigned with thecardinal points of the compass. The interior diameter of the rampart is metres which is also the length of the two roads. In each quadrant formed by the two roads, four houses were built along the sides of a square aligned with the roads. All houses had the same ground plan and measured about 30 metres in length. Aggersborg was the second site to be recognised as a ring-fortress. It is situated on the Jutland peninsula on the northern shore of the Limfjord at its narrowest point at Aggersound.

It was partly excavated in the late s Roesdahl The ground plan is similar to that of Trelleborg but Aggersborg is built on a much larger scale with a diameter of metres with 48 long-houses in twelve square blocks. The Fyrkat ring-fortress also lies on the Jutland peninsula on a low ridge above the Onsild river four kilometres from its outlet in the Mariager Fjord 35 kilometres from the sea.

It was excavated in the s Olsen et al. It has exactly the same layout as Trelleborg but is somewhat smaller or metres in diameter.

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The last site to be identified as a ring-fortress in Denmark was Nonnebakken on the island of Funen Thrane et al. Few traces of the fortress remain above ground. The rampart was removed in but the fortress seems to have been of the same size as Fyrkat. It is located some hundred metres from the open shore of the Baltic. It was of the same size as the Danish Trelleborg but it lacked the strict geometry and symmetry of the latter.

There might also be signs of another ring-fortress in Scania at Borgeby on the Kavlinge river five kilometres from its oulet into the Sound between presentday Denmark and Sweden. A prototype for the Danish ring-fortresses has been searched for. No immediate forerunner has so far been identified in Denmark. The closest analogy in design comes from a series of fortifications in Flanders and Zeeland. The best researched fortress is at Oost-Souburg in the presentday Netherlands.

Although its construction date probably is somewhat earlier than its Danish counterparts, both its size and layout are the same as those of Trelleborg. Two roads at right angles cut through its circular rampart in four places, dividing the rampart into four equal segments, the differences being that the roads deviate significantly from the cardinal points and that the houses in each quadrant do not conform to a regular pattern Trimpe Burger The high degree of conformity of the ground plans and their sophisticated geometrical design, coupled with the great demand for manpower and material for the execution of the massive fortresses, prove that there must have been an incontestable centralised authority behind their planning and construction.

The dating of Trelleborg and Fyrkat is based on dendrochronology and corroborated by traditional archaeological dating of artifacts. All the available evidence points to a construction date around for Trelleborg Bonde et al. This was a time when king Harald Bluetooth had united al1 Denmark which added to his prestige and responsibilities.

His building activities did not end with the ring-fortresses. He is remembered for building the metre long bridge over the Vejle river at Ravning Ramskou , for erecting the famous Jelling monuments Krogh and for reconstructing the border rampart of Danevirke Andersen His works are characterised as being impressive, innovative and prestigious. On the basis of the archaeological evidence, there is no clear answer to what purpose the ring-fortresses would have served.

A function as military strongholds is indicated by their huge ramparts and their strategical position in secluded spots well away from the open sea lanes. On the other hand, their location near trade routes both by overland and by sea, points at defended commercial centres.

Although located some distance away from the sea, they could al1 be reached by ship. Finally, their orderly design could be seen as an expression of a romanticised concept of an ideal city. The ground plan of the fortresses in the form of a circle with two perpendicular diameters could have been a geometrically graceful way of dividing a circular area into four quadrants that would have appealed to military engineers. However, the figure of a circle with four spokes might have had a deeper meaning. It is a well-known symbol in Scandinavian rock carvings and archaeological finds, especially from the Bronze Age Malmer : The famous Trundholm sun chariot like many others has wheels with such impractical divisions for carrying a heavy load Gelling et al.

It is generally assumed to have been a sun symbol Green but it could also very well have been a symbol of cosmos with its four cardinal directions. Sometimes, the quadrants in rock carvings are filled with squares or dots like the square blocks of houses in the ring-fortresses. This more elaborate design also becomes more frequent with time in northern Europe. It is found on the rim of a shield from the migration period Fettich The same motif can be seen on an iron ring to an entrance gate to a church in Sweden Paulsen Fig.

The symbol has been wide-spread to the present time in other parts of Europe as well. It appears on objects as diverse as embroidered textiles and coloured eggs. They knew how to set out accurate circles and to draw lines at right angles to each other in order to fit the houses, ramparts and moats into a preconceived pattern. The attention they paid to detail is clearly shown by the fact that the houses in the quadrants at Trelleborg deviated only 0.

It would have been natural enough to expect these master builders to ensure that the grid system of roads within the ramparts comformed to certain principies. It has been taken for granted that the fortresses were orientated towards the four cardinal directions. The south direction might have been important for the Norsemen. At this northern latitude of the fortresses, the sun barely comes above the horizon in winter. At Trelleborg it reaches a maximum height of only eleven degrees in the south at local noon at the winter solstice. The south was also the direction in which Valhalla according to Norse mythology was located.

The three famous ship burials at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune had their prows pointing towards the south. At Ladby on the Danish island of Funen, the interred ship was also facing south Brandsted The east direction could have had a relation with the sunrise. The sun rises exactly due east on two occasions in the year, at the equinoxes.

In summer the sun rises north of east and in winter south of east.


On a certain date, the sun rises every year in the same direction. It was the rule during the Middle Ages that churches should preferably be orientated towards the east. By studying the orientation of medieval churches in the Carpathian Basin, it was proved that the date of the vernal equinox in the Julian calendar had been used more often than the proper establishment of true east. It was also found that a good deal of the churches had been orientated towards the sunrise on the saint's day to whom the church had been devoted Guzsik The result is shown in Table 1 for the three existing Danish ring-fortresses and is surprising.

The fortresses differ considerably from each other in orientation and from the cardinal directions. The usual picture of comparison of the ground plans for the fortresses aligned with the cardinal directions is misleading - upper part of Figure 1 - and should be replaced with one showing the true orientations of the fortresses - lower part of Figure The mean deviation is no more than eight degrees.

This explanation goes contrary to the care with which the ground plans were laid out. Sep The sunrise on March 23 in Table 1 seen through the east gate at both Aggersborg and Fyrkat is interesting as this date is close to both the ecclesiastical date in the Julian calendar for the vernal eqinox on March 21 and to the feast of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary on March The latter date commenced the official year in England until much later Hutton 8. The date for the sunrise at Trelleborg through its east gate on March 1 does not agree with those at Aggersborg and Fyrkat, but is still interesting because March 1 was counted as the formal beginning of the year by the Franks.

The Easter full moon could also have played a role in the newly christianised Denmark. Table 2 shows the rise of this moon through the east gate at Trelleborg for four years prior to the winter when the last trees for the construction of the fortress were cut down. There is a close agreement in orientation for the year when the Easter full moon appeared on Good Friday.

The agreement could be coincidental. TA8LE 2. Azimuths of the rising points of the Easter full moon upper limb through the east gate at Trelleborg. The upper row shows how the ground plans of Danish ringfortresses generally are depicted and the lower row how they should be shown to include their true orientations.

However, this does not at first had seem to apply to the orientations. Jocobson, E. Blom Lund, Age Monumenis ot Jelling in the light o1 receni orchoeologicol excovoiions", Acto Archaeologica 53 1 , M. En jysk vikingeborg Copenhogen, Nofionolmuseets Arbejdsmork 1 , H. Odense, Odense ti Odense, J. It is the only analogous to European henges and rondelles in Russia at present. The most elevated up to four metres west part of the site was excavated in an area square metres in and years. The constructions of two joining circles with diameters of fourteen and sixteen metres outlined by ditches were discovered by excavations.

Two passages with parallel palings four metres long and more than one metre wide directed to the first circle on the west-east line Fig. In the second circle the passage in the form of gap in the ditch was on the north-east direction. There were a right-angled-shaped hollows Iike dug-outs 7x6 m and 9x6 m in the centre of the both circles. Main finds were concentrated there. Two concentric rings with post-holes and bonfire-pits were discovered at the bottorn of the circular ditches and around thern on the outside with 1. Sorne post-holes were in hollows at the centre of the circles. Sacrificial animal bones about pieces accurnulations including vessel crocks more than and stone tools patterns were discovered around rnany holes, in the ditch and in centre of the circles.

Bones of wolf and bear are single. A pit with adult and child hurnan skulls inside the first circle and the skeletal rernains two adult rnen and a girl in the ditch of the second circle were discovered Potyornkina These directions coincide with the sunrise equinox and solstice days for the latitude of the site location.

Detected accumulations near the posts in the west and north-south-west directions coinciding with the sunset in these days were less considerable. Thus there was a thick post rnarked withl in figure 1 in the south part central ground of the first circle of the sanctuary. The next post 18 just like this was in the ditch strictly to the north of the first one. So there was exactly defined astronornical directions in the first circle of the construction.

The east-west direction was rnarked by two passages, the. It was possible that these posts in the ditch fixed the position of the shadow of the central post Potyomkina During some time about mid-day it was like a gnomon a kind of sundial. The sundial of Savin might divide time into different intervals in different days of the year In equinoctial days the shadow is displaced from one post to another during minutes.

In the south part and the edge of the ditch posts form the semicircle. They are on a straight line. Small deflections are normal. We must remember that such an ancient construction of years ago remained only in the form of spots and deepenings of different colour and intensity of the ground colouring. This creates some mistakes in fixing the time of the remains. By the archaeological data the second circle was constructed later than the first one.

During the excavation a point near the circle centre was not marked, but was found out by the method of reverse directions. Seven holes of the thick posts were accurately fixed in the ditch and outside it. They placed six directions from that point. The azimuth is calculated according to the phenomena of the appearance of the upper edge of the sun at the skyline in the year BC. Each of six sun directions is accompanied by many archaeological findings. It makes astronomical research more convincing.

It is interesting that the ditch of the common part of two circles is roughly directed toward the sunrise of the summer solstice day. Solar azimuths connect also two banks located outside circles. Their sections confirmed their man-made origin and connections with the circular buildings Potyomkina a: The banks and ring structures with pots by designs entered into a uniform architectural complex of the Sanctuary Fig.

Figure The Sanctuary Savin. Total plan. Its axis, the post 1 in the centre of the first circle and other posts The second Major bank m long m height located in m distance to the east from the centre of the second circle Fig 3. On both sides of the bank small ditches were discovered.

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The Axis of the bank coincides exactly with the west-east line, the central post of the second circle, two posts in the ditch. Under embankments of both banks some post-holes, arboreal decay, traces of bonfires, pieces of coa1 were discovered Fig. The banks were constructed to have more exact and visible sight lines at the most important for the Savin builders or priests east direction pointed to the sunrise in equinox days.

These astronomical reference-points illustrate the fact that the Transuralian Aeneolithic population knew the orientation of the sun and used it in their cult centres. It is really to suppose an existence of the sun calendar. There are also moon reference-points at the sanctuary. The post-holes wide arc outlining the second circle from the south is especially interesting from this point of view Fig. One can think of the post-hole 63 in the north part of the circle between the centre and the ditch as the relative centre of the arc. At least the thickest posts of the arc are roughly at the same distance Figure 3.

A view on the Major bank from northwest Figure 4. A view on the the Major bank from the centre of the second circle. On an axis of the bank there are poles put on a place of the post- holes 90, and in trench under the bank. Directions from this relative centre to the most visible posts in the south-east coincide with three astronomical reference-points: high moonrise azimuth " ; sunrise in winter solstice " ; low moonrise 1 25". The moon azimuths are calculated for the centre of the moon disk. One of these posts is in the ditch As to the north-west direction we can mention for the third time the midday post of the first circle 1 8.

It is di- exac ly to thesouth from thecentral posthole. The last post 63 is on the eastwest line marked by the post-holes both inside the second circle, in the ditch of it, and in the ditch and of the first circle a;. These artefacts can have the effect of the moon phases and moon symbolism Potyomkina , fig. The rnost early one is connected with the first circle and two passages entrance - sights.

At the second stage the second circle and nearby bank were constructed. The central pole of the first circle was moved from an axis of entrances on an axis of the nearby Minor bank and axis of a line of poles on a place of connection of two circles. At the third stage the Major bank was built.

It has became the main sight Iine. At the sarne time the centre of ritual actions was moved to the second circle. At al1 stages old posts - markers, pointed to the main astronomical directions were used too Posts were moved, changed for new ones. It is evidence of correction the main solar direction during rebuilding. Total time of the sanctuary activity was in period of sorne ten years. According to results of palinological analysis of so11 from the site in year BC there was a sharp damping of climate in this region.

A - -, New ritual centre like the Savin Slobodchiki 1 was built at 1 km exactly to the west from "big" bank on a higher place. A trench cut across the Minor bank square The nearest analogies to the V The Iight- colored lens in its wall is the Stone Age bank. Dark stripe Transuralian round-planned rnonuments are from above lens is ancient a sod surface of the bank. There are the rondelles in the Cen- Under the ancient bank is a layer from the rests of a tree, cane, herb, cools; tral Europe Podborsky ,, The special similarity with the Transuralian sanctuaries have the early henges with the constructions rnade from the wooden posts Earth Woodhenge Monurnents Wood ; Hawkins and White 63, fig.

The specified similarity is shown in a lot of general features: 1- near latitude of the site place 44"- 56" North in conditions of the steppe and forest steppe landscapes; 2- similar topographical placing on the risings of the plains and of the wide river flood plain; 3- circular lay-out; 4- srnall square Iirnited by ditches or ditches and banks without cornpact inner building; 5- placing and orientation of entrances, 6- presence of the supporting holes for posts directed to the heavenly bodies rises and sets in the equinox and the solstice; 7- presence of accumulations of a pottery, tools, animal bones, cult items; traces of fire, ochre; man skeletons in ditches; 8- presence at a complex of banks for astronomical purpose; 9- planned building these objects, marked on the land prelirninarily; some stages of the cornplexes construction; 11 - times and character of functioning as the centers with prirnitive astronornical, cult- social and calendar rneaning.

Parsarnian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatofy, Armenia The Armenian highland is one of the ancient cradles of civilisation. Many investigators of the history of astronomy, having no facts to hand, mainly by logical approach carne to the conclusion that the ancient inhabitants of Armenia not only knew, but also took part in the formation of ancient astronomy Maunder, , Olcott, Thus Olcott 1 91 4 wrote : "Astronomical facts correspond with historical and archaeological investigations and prove that people who have invented the ancient figures of constellations probably Iived in the valley of the Euphrates, as well as in the region near the mountain Ararat" Maunder Calculating in what place the centre of this empty region coincides with the North Pole, we got the figure BC, which is probably the date during which the naming of the constellations were completed.

We can exclude Greece, ltaly and Spain on the basis of the fact that the figure of tiger is present in the figures of constellations. Thus, purely by logical thinking we can assert that the motherland of celestial figures must be Minor Asia and Armenia, that is to say a region limited by the Black, the Mediterranean, the Caspian and the Aegean Seas The discoveries made during the last decades in Armenia, have enriched our knowledge of the ancient civilisation and ancient astronomy in this region.

On Armenian territory, a belt calendar and geocentric model of the universe were discovered from the Bronze Era, dating back to the XI century BC Tumanian, Mnazakanian, Furthermore, rock carvings of astronomical representations of the Sagittarius, Lion and Scorpio constellations, along with symbols of the Sun and the Moon, were discovered on fragments,. The diarneters of the pictures are different from each other, indicating the relative brightness of the stars. On one fragrnent the Sun, Moon, and five planets, as seen with the naked eye are pictured, and on another two fragments there are circles with short and 29 long rays.

The rays cawed on the rocks probably depict the period of repetition of the Lunar phases. A carved circle found on one of the rocks created a great deal of interest. This circle is divided into orthogonal lines, in which on opposing sides are also cawed human figures. These symbols represent the Earth and antipodes Figurel. Such symbolism is used in modern astronomy Tumanian, Petrosian, Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Arrnenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient cornplex of platforrns for observing the sky.

Of the platforrns, three are particularly well presewed. The first is triangular in shape, with its smallest angle facing the South. The bisector of that angle coincides with the North-South direction to an accuracy 2 degrees. On the rock surfaces a number of symbols are carved. These symbols and images are sometimes also repeated on the other rocks as well. On the east side of the first platform there are four identical stellar symbols surrounded by a trapezium measuring 55x40 cm.

This trapezium is drawn narrower in the south-east; a choice of geometry which is not accidental, as will be revealed later.. One might assume that the centre of the platform might be a good place to place the symbols. However, the positioning of the trapezium and the symbols may be the key to its secrets. The fact that the trapezium with the star symbols is carved on the eastern side suggests the idea that it is connected with the rising of some star or the Sun. The Sun however can be excluded, as it used to have its own unique symbol in ancient times.

The question now is which heavenly body was the trapezium pointing to? Let's continue mentally the altitude of the trapezium till the horizon and see, with the rising of what heavenly bodies this direction is connected. We measured the azimuth of the trapezium with a compass and made some calculations. The value of declination was found to be - 21".

From these data it is not difficult to. Ma O00 The table 2 shows how strongly the epoch changes with a change in declination of two degrees. The occurrence of the symbol for Sirius four times in the trapezium can be explained by the fact that as in the Egyptian calendar, where the year had days, after each 4 years the rising of Sirius was shifted from the first day to the second day of the rnonth, and after another 4 years frorn the 3rd day to the 4th and so on. If these suppositions are correct, then the findings on the first platforrn prove that the inhabitants of Arrnenia were well acquainted with the sky, and could have used the periodical appearance for rneasuring time.

The second platforrn is situated 2. It is also triangular and in the plane of rneridian. The sign of the Sun and other signs are there. Of special interest is the third platform. It differs frorn the other two in having seven steps carved in the rock. These steps are positioned roughly in the plane of the rneridian.

If the stairs leading to the platform were in the East-West direction, then one might assume that the platform was being used for religious ceremonies The stairs however were positioned in the North-South direction, which provided an optimum position for carrying out astronomical observations. On the last step leading to the platform, a carved directional indicator compass was made which shows North-South-East directions. The presence of the compass suggests that the platform was not positioned exactly on the rneridian plane and this compass had to be use to correct the position of the observer.

The other cawed signs found on the hills and the platforms also lead us to understand that the platforms, as well as serving as astronornical observation platforms, could also be used for religious rituals. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters of height form stone rings resernbling to ancient stone monuments -henges in Great Britain and Brittany Parsamian, , Khunkikian, , Parsamian and Barsegian, , Geruni, The diarneter of the rnain stone ring of Zoraz Kar is more than 30rn and it is notable that on some stones found in the eastern part there are well polished round holes, which could have been used for the observation of the Sun in the days of equinox and solstice.

The rnain ring is connected with megaliths in S-E direction by gate of two megaliths the distance between which more than between other stones. The first observations of the sunrise the days of solstice shows that the middle Iine of gate has direction East-West. On the direction N-E frorn the gate there is a range of nine mega- Iiths. Sunrise observations on June 22, shows that at the rnornent of sunrise Sun appearance on the top of highest megalith from the gate. In the same moment it was possible to see Sun in the holes of two rnegaliths N 39 and N Nurneration was begin frorn north end of stone avenue which lead to main stone ring in the N-S direction.

After short time during sunrise Sun was seen trough first rnegaliths hole frorn the gate. In particularly there are interesting information about observations of supernovae in , , possible supernova in 71 6, two novae in , Astapovich. Till to now 75 information about appearances of 60 comets are found in Armenian medieval sources Vsekhsvjatskij and Tumanian, , Tumananian, , Barsegian and Epremian, In particularly Halley's comet were observed from Armenia in , , , , and Brutian, , Barseghian, Epremian, , Barseghian, Parsamian, Byurakan Obs.

Mire Nouki, 5, 66, l? NAN of Armenia, v. Byurakan Observaiory, 57, 92, E. Byurakan Observaiory, 57,, b. Sibiu, Romania Since the beginning, the dependence of the human being towards the sun and moon motions, the periodicity of the seasons, certain moments of stars, planets, sunset or sunrise, had a strong influence on his whole life, marking his activity the agricultural cycle, navigation , his religions rituals, his customs and his myths.

A lot of these are maintained also nowadays. The vestiges of this influence are still found in large areas, even in different continents, Europa, Asia, Africa or America. For example, in Romania, in , a Neolithic cemetey, dated B. In the following, we will see that the Dacians have not made exception from these long traditions and customs.

Although it was a good relationship, I will take all the good from it and move on because there was more negative memories then good. I did not feel attractive after a certain point in the relationship and that was when I knew, it wouldn't work. It would have just continued to be a uphill battle with l ots of scars. I am currently dating a Virgo, and it is not how I expected a relationship to be. He lacks in romance, he doesn't try to surprise me at all.

He trips if I talk to my guy friends. He lacks that self-confidence and swears he is ugly. It is really annoying to always be the first to start off something Not the greatest kisser out there either, and when we get to arguments he is always saying things that are irrelevant, like "are you seeing someone else? Come on now, Im sure Sag girls are pretty faithful, we just need some spice in the relationship.

Some romance, some surprises, a guy who knows what they want and wont critize everything about you. I have been with a Virgo mam for a year by now,i feel his just great. His very caring and understanding. He is my first love and I do hope he will be da last one too. I had drama with a Virgo Imma Sag woman We became friends in the summer time at a club and he kept chasing me.

I didn't like him much Then I started to be attracted to him. I was going to tell him yes but he stopped contacting me for like 2 months. Then he came back and we became close friends. He was like a best friend and then new years we had sex. I really didn't want to but I was intoxicated so I went with it and it was pretty good. Anyway after that I found out he had a girlfriend and I was pissed at him and shocked that he'd deceive me like that so I was mad at him for a while.

Especially when he introduced me to his girlfriend cancer after that I told him I wanted to be honest and tell her. And that I didn't wanna mess around with him anymore, which I didn't mess with him anymore. So months passed and I guess she found out and she was starting crap with me, which I don't blame her , but from what he was telling her which I found out later after having a heart to heart with her , I was obsessed with him which is a lie because it was the other way around and he was telling me he was gonna break up with her for me and I was like if you're doing that to her then you'd do it to me so eff that no thanks plus you're a liar and a cheater.

Anyway in the end I was about to fight this girl over a guy I did not want and who was just a fling I wanted to forget, but thought it was worthless so I told him I never wanted to speak to him again and ended up calling her up telling her everything and she the same. But I've forgiven him but havent forgotten what he did, so that happened beginning of , ok so like a week ago he texts me and was like I heard you moved and im like who is this he told me I told him I forgive him but don't trust him he tells me he misses me and our friendship im like whatever yea right. I have several Virgo friends and they're really good friends.

I just had one bad experience. Im a Saggitarian who been with my Virgo Lover for about three months. I must say that for now the relationship is good and we go almost everywhere. He is family oriented and very delicious sexually. Im very adventurous and like nature. He seem like a very decent nice guy. He also pays for our dates. He is also very spiritual like me. We are both in our 40s and have matured through most of our experiences.

I was with an Aquarian before, and although they say we are supposed to be compatible, the Aquarian guy was very immature and not a good human being at all. So it depends on how we both understand each other in the long run, heres an example look at Michelle and Barack Obama, Barack is a Leo and Michelle is a Capricorn, is that a Match made in Heave.

You decide!!!!!!!!! Ive been in a long distance relationship with a Virgo man for 8 months. At first.. He was careful at every little aspect of our relationship I tried bringing new things to him.. The big problem is that.. Ok so My dad died.

capricorn love horoscope cafe astrology - leo hombre y virgo mujer son compatibles en el amor

My biggest mistake ever Since then he gradually turned more and more distant from me Im depressed There have been times.. One of her ex's told me he felt the same things as me I dated a Virgo man for five years and all I can say is Con Man he was the biggest liar I ever met and very unfaithful, the worst is that I didn't find out about his cheating ways until the 5th year when I dumped his sorry ass.

Virgo me are manipulative, cold, insensitive, dishonest and the greatest pretenders When I learn a man is a Virgo I put on my sneakers and run for my life and never look back. I'm a December 9th born Sagi and I seem to have the opposite experiences of what most of you are saying here. I am a Virgo and everyone on here is generalizing. It all depends on the houses, planets and transits between two charts.

Virgo can work with anyone that has the right combo of chart aspects. I'm a Nov. I like him alot. I see a lot of good qualities in him, but he is very reserved and stand-offish. When we're together, he's very sweet and attentive and the sex is great, even though I've noticed that I'm the one that has to initiate anything beyond light petting But he's younger than me so I'm hoping I can show him how to open up a little more and relax. I recently let him know how I feel and I think it scared him off a little bit, but I gave him a little space and after a few days, he let me know that he wasn't as unfeeling about our relationship as I thought.

It's a start, I guess.. My goodness,so much negativity, I am a saggitarian female with a male virgo, sex is brilliant and loving, we try most things out and he is always so understanding, we talk, we laugh, we love, we are friends as well as lovers, we respect each others lives and live for each other, we enjoy mostly all the same things but also know when we need our own time out, we NEVER row or fall out, we always know where the other one is, and nither of us feels as if we are inposing on each other I'm a dec 4th born sagi woman and I am married to a Virgo man.

We've been togather for 4yrs and we have been married for 1yr. We have a lot of fun togather. When we first got togather I was not attracked to him, but he chased me until I gave him a chance. Now I am happier than I've ever been. We enjoy each others company. He brings out a more serious side of me when it's nessiary and I bring out his playful side. I feel like we are a match made in heaven. He is some what controlling, but it's not to the point where it causes problems between us. Out of all the relationships I've ever had this is the only one that has ment enough to me to keep Virgo guy here who just met an amazing Sagittarius.

This definitely feels like the blending of two very similar souls, although that might have something to do with my sun sign which, I believe, is also Sag. I am also close to the cusp of Libra so harmony is very important to me, and I feel that by now I have a good idea of how to achieve it. I love to travel and experience new things - foods, cultures, etc.

She totally blows my mind and opens me up sexually and that becomes a metaphor for the way she opens my mind up to so many other things. I am a very sexual person so her openness is very touching to me and pretty much everything I've ever wanted and ever could want in a sex partner. Also, she is one of the most intelligent women I have ever met, and very, very cute. She is always wanting to nurture the intimacy and closeness between us, even if she is not the most comfortable with her emotions but hopefully becomin g moreso , so that is very touching as well.

We are both in our mid thirties and I have very high hopes for this relationship. She has dated a lot of Virgos before and I'm not sure how well they've gone. I know we can be fussy but I think that with me and my love we have all the right personal elements. I have spent a lot of time figuring out my emotions in life and this woman is the key that fits into my understanding of the world. She is captivated by my mind and my quirks. Our moral ideas are very similar too. Every day we learn something new from each other.

I don't know about these other guys but I very much respect someone who can express her vulnerability to me, especially if there is attraction, intense attraction. It is honest and inviting and my woman is starting to do that more and more. I reciprocate this as well and it really helps bond us together. Sometimes she doesn't say things in a very considerate way but I accept her because being considerate is not as important to me as being honest, well-intentioned and kind, and I know what a wonderful person she is!

Honesty and vulnerability are my two most consistent turn-ons. This woman is very very strong but definitely knows how to push those buttons! We are very attracted to each others' minds and a guy would be a fool to not appreciate a woman who respects and can use the gift known to civilization as REASON, as my woman does so well.

Be reasonable! You are so strong at it! Express yourself reasonably and articulate logically why things are important to you! Any guy who can't appreciate that is a dumb douchebag and you need to dump him. Be reasonable, put your life into perspective, develop a consistent life-philosophy that works for you I know you love to do this and any guy who can't appreciate that is a fool who deserves the hell of the shallow, irrational existence that nearly everyone else will be perfectly capable of putting him through. As a Virgo, he of all people should appreciate a reasonable woman. I dearly do and will hold on to that for as long as I can.

Reason saves relationships. All I want to know from a Virgo man is why, oh why, do you love us then retreat for weeks on end? What goes through your mind? I have been friends with a Virgo for three years straight now.. I'm a Sag woman dating a Virgo Man, It has its ups and down, Im learning more of his characteristics. I read all the inserts here I have to say tho, I don't have many complaints, I like my freedom, he gives it to me and theres trust.

Logistic regression was used to model receipt of timely follow-up adjusting for study site, age, year, insurance, and income. Among , mammograms, For mammography, black women were less likely than whites to receive timely follow-up Outpatient follow-up after treatment for early breast cancer : updated results after 5 years. The value of frequent outpatient follow-up in the first few years after primary treatment for early breast cancer is a controversial issue.

Schedules involving monthly visits in the first years and 6-monthly from years are still commonplace. In this study we audited such a policy from a single cancer centre, identifying a cohort of all patients with early breast cancer pT pN NxM0 referred for adjuvant therapy in The hospital records were reviewed to ascertain patient and tumour characteristics, the surgical and adjuvant treatment received, the timing and sequencing of recurrences and their mode of detection.

Five hundred and five patients had breast conservation surgery. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years in this group was Twenty-five of the 31 local recurrences that occurred were the first site of relapse. One hundred and four patients underwent mastectomy. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival at 5 years in this group was Nine of the 13 local recurrences were the first site of relapse. Six Overall, Nodal status, tumour grade and tumour stage were confirmed as significant risk factors for metastasis P followed up as outpatients for 5 years who had.

Plasma carotenoids and risk of breast cancer over 20 y of follow-up Background: Increasing evidence suggests that carotenoids, which are micronutrients in fruit and vegetables, reduce breast cancer risk. Whether carotenoids are important early or late in carcinogenesis is unclear, and limited analyses have been conducted by breast tumor subtypes.

Objectives: We sought to examine issues of the timing of carotenoid exposure as well as associations by breast tumor subtypes. In —, 32, women donated blood samples; in —, 18, of these women contributed a second blood sample. Between the first blood collection and June , breast cancer cases were diagnosed cases were diagnosed after the second collection and matched with control subjects. Plasma carotenoids and risk of breast cancer over 20 y of follow-up. Increasing evidence suggests that carotenoids, which are micronutrients in fruit and vegetables, reduce breast cancer risk.

We sought to examine issues of the timing of carotenoid exposure as well as associations by breast tumor subtypes. We conducted a nested case-control study of plasma carotenoids measured by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study. In , 32, women donated blood samples; in , 18, of these women contributed a second blood sample. Coffee, tea, caffeine, and risk of breast cancer : a twenty two-year follow-up. Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Willett, Walter C. The relation between consumption of coffee, tea, and caffeine and risk of breast cancer remains unsettled.

We examined data from a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate whether high intake of coffee and caffeine is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine consumption was assessed in , , , , , , and the follow-up continued through We documented 5, cases of invasive breast cancer during 1,, person-years.

The multivariate relative risks RRs of breast cancer across categories of caffeinated coffee consumption were: 1.

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  7. A significant inverse association of caffeine intake with breast cancers was observed among postmenopausal women; for the highest quintile of intake compared to the lowest RR 0. We observed no substantial association between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea consumption and risk of breast cancer in the overall cohort. However, our results suggested a weak inverse association between caffeine-containing beverages and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    Follow-up care practices and barriers to breast cancer survivorship: perspectives from Asian oncology practitioners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the perspectives of Asian oncology practitioners on the physical and psychosocial issues experienced by breast cancer survivors BCS , current survivorship care practices, and the barriers to follow-up care.

    This was a cross-sectional survey study. Oncology practitioners were recruited from a major cancer center in Singapore and through two regional cancer meetings that took place in Singapore and Malaysia in A total of oncology practitioners from various Southeast Asian countries, mostly nurses The majority of the respondents agreed that fatigue Monitoring for physical and treatment-related adverse effects Most of the respondents also agreed that patient-specific barriers were the main impediments to follow-up care.

    This study provides insights into the various aspects of breast cancer survivorship care from the perspectives of oncology practitioners and shows that survivorship care is relatively inadequate in Asia. There is a need for new survivorship care models to meet the needs of Asian BCS and to complement the unique healthcare systems of Asia.

    This study aimed to describe the types of providers participating in early follow-up care of older breast cancer survivors and to identify factors associated with receipt of follow-up care from different types of providers. Oncologist including medical, radiation, and surgical follow-up and primary care visits were defined using Medicare specialty provider codes and linked American Medical Association AMA Masterfile. The types of providers involved in follow-up care were summarized. Stepped regression models identified factors associated with receipt of medical oncology follow-up care and factors associated with receipt of medical oncology care alone versus combination oncology follow-up care.

    The patients with larger tumor size, positive axillary nodes, estrogen receptor ER -positive status, and chemotherapy treatment were more likely to have medical oncology follow-up care than older patients with higher Charlson comorbidity scores who were not receiving axillary care. Substantial variation exists in the types of providers that participate in breast cancer follow-up care.

    Improved guidance for the types of providers involved and delineation of providers' responsibilities during follow-up care could lead to improved efficiency and quality of care. Treatment of early breast cancer , a long-term follow-up study: the GOCS experience. Most cases of breast cancer are diagnosed at early stage of disease; therefore, treatment is oriented to increase the disease-free interval DFI and overall survival OS. The prognosis, in comparison with other malignancies, has improved in the last decades as a result of mammographic screening. The aim of the study was to report the incidence of local and distant recurrence, DFI and OS in patients pts with stage I and stage II breast cancer over a period of 26 years divided into three groups.

    Patients were divided according to the year of diagnosis into three periods of 10 years: Group A pts, Group B pts, and Group C pts. DFI was analyzed from the date of initial diagnosis to the date of local or distant recurrence. OS was estimated from the date of initial diagnosis to the last follow-up or date of death. Median age was 51 years The median follow-up was 8. The mean tumor size in Group A was 2. Factors that had an effect in OS demonstrated by the multivariate regression analysis were: Tumor size, ER status, and nodal involvement p Trans-ethnic follow-up of breast cancer GWAS hits using the preferential linkage disequilibrium approach.

    Leveraging population-distinct linkage equilibrium LD patterns, trans-ethnic follow-up of variants discovered from genome-wide association studies GWAS has proved to be useful in facilitating the identification of bona fide causal variants. We previously developed the preferential LD approach, a novel method that successfully identified causal variants driving the GWAS signals within European-descent populations even when the causal variants were only weakly linked with the GWAS-discovered variants. To evaluate the performance of our approach in a trans-ethnic setting, we applied it to follow up breast cancer GWAS hits identified mostly from populations of European ancestry in African Americans AA.

    The results support trans-ethnic application of the preferential LD approach in search for candidate causal variants, and may have implications for future genetic research of breast cancer in AA women. Cancer among Scandinavian women with cosmetic breast implants: a pooled long-term follow-up study. No increased risks of specific types of cancer following breast implantation have been consistently reported, but data on risk beyond 15 years are limited. We have pooled the results of 2 nationwide cohort studies of 3, Swedish and 2, Danish women who underwent cosmetic breast implantation between and Cancer incidence through was ascertained through nationwide cancer registries.

    Mean duration of follow up was The increased risk of lung cancer is expected due to the high prevalence of smoking among the women with implants in our study. With respect to other site-specific cancers , no significantly increased or decreased SIR was observed. This study, which includes women followed for almost 4 decades, represents the longest follow up of women with cosmetic breast implants to date. The results provide no evidence of an association between breast implants and any type of cancer.

    Copyright c Wiley-Liss, Inc. Sentinel lymph node biopsy SLNB as a staging procedure in multiple breast cancer is a controversial issue. We have aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sentinel node SN detection in patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer as well as the safety of its clinical application after a long follow-up. A prospective descriptive study was performed. Eighty-nine patients diagnosed of multiple breast cancer 73 multifocal; 16 multicentric underwent SLNB. These patients were compared to those with unifocal neoplasia. Periareolar radiocolloid administration was performed in most of the patients.

    Evaluation was made at an average of Scintigraphic and surgical SN localization in patients with multiple breast cancer were A higher percentage of extra-axillary nodes was observed than in the unifocal group The rate of SN localization in multicentric cancer was slightly lower than in multifocal cancer Number of SN per patient was significantly higher in multicentric breast cancer 2. No axillary relapses have been demonstrated in the follow-up in multiple breast cancer patients group.

    SLNB performed by periareolar injection is a reliable and accurate staging procedure of patients with multiple breast cancer , including those with multicentric processes. Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer IBC is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy CT with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy RT Asterisk-Operator CT without mastectomy.

    Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation 12 Gy in four fractions or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy. Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

    Primary care providers and health systems have prominent roles in guiding effective cancer screening. To characterize variation in screening abnormality rates and timely initial follow-up for common cancer screening tests. Breast , colorectal, or cervical cancer screening. Abnormality rates per screens; percentage with timely initial follow-up within 90 days, except 9-month window for BI-RADS 3. Primary care clinic-level variation in percentage with screening abnormality and percentage with timely initial follow-up. The percentage with timely follow-up was The primary care clinic variation 25th to 75th percentile was smaller for the percentage with an abnormal screen breast , 8.

    Variation in both the rate of screening abnormalities and their initial follow-up was evident across organ sites and primary care clinics. This highlights an opportunity for improving the delivery of. The objective of this study was to identify the effect of planned follow-up visits on married women's health beliefs and behaviors concerning breast and cervical cancer screenings.

    The sample of the study included women. Data were collected using the aforementioned tools from September to March Four follow-up visits were conducted, nurses were educated, and telephone reminders were utilized. Friedman's test, McNemar's test, and descriptive statistics were used for data analyzing. The frequency of performing breast self-examination BSE at the last visit increased to Also, the rate of having a Pap smear significantly increased after the follow-up visits.

    Breast cancer is one of the major causes of premature death for women. Its cost management is important for both the national health insurance and the individual health care providers. Duration of medical activities and other medical resources utilisations were collected from a retrospective cohort of patients followed from January to February Unit costs were obtained from cost accounts of the Centre. This study has provided an estimate of the real global cost of managing patients with breast cancer in a single French Comprehensive Cancer Centre CLCC.

    The study method used is readily transposable to other treatment contexts and to other types of cancer. The study is based on a twelve-year follow-up of the cohort of women histologically diagnosed nationwide for benign and malignant breast lesions This study offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the progression of benign and malignant breast disease on a whole community base population. Purpose: Cardiac toxicity after breast radiotherapy RT has been widely described in 'older' RT trials i. The results from more 'modern' RT trials have shown less cardiac toxicity.

    The comparisons between the 'older' and 'modern' trials are confounded by the longer follow-up time in the 'older' trials. We systematically assessed the effect of treatment era and follow-up duration on the reported rates of cardiac toxicity associated with RT. Relevant data were extracted from the identified trials.

    The trials were defined as 'older' patient accrual start year before and 'modern' patient accrual start year in or after to segregate the trials and assess the treatment era effect. A year follow-up duration was used as a cutoff to segregate and analyze trials with varying lengths of follow-up. Results: We analyzed 19 published reports of patients treated between and 5 randomized controlled trials, 5 single- or multi-institutional studies, and 9 national cancer registry database reviews.

    Conclusion: Additional follow-up is needed to ensure that modern methods effectively reduce cardiac toxicity. Continued diligence to minimize cardiac exposure remains prudent. Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of early and advanced breast cancer : When, why, and how often? Imaging in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with early or advanced breast cancer is an important aspect of cancer care.

    The role of imaging in breast cancer depends on the goal and should only be performed to guide clinical decisions. Imaging is valuable if a finding will change the course of treatment and improve outcomes, whether this is disease-free survival, overall survival or quality-of-life. In the last decade, imaging is often overused in oncology and contributes to rising healthcare costs. In this context, we review the data that supports the appropriate use of imaging for breast cancer patients.

    We will discuss: 1 the optimal use of staging imaging in both early Stage 0-II and locally advanced Stage III breast cancer , 2 the role of surveillance imaging to detect recurrent disease in Stage 0-III breast cancer and 3 how patients with metastatic breast cancer should be followed with advanced imaging. Follow-up bone scan in breast cancer patients: what is the appropriate interpretation of purely rib uptake?

    Although rib uptake is frequently detected in follow-up bone scans of breast cancer patients, few studies have assessed its clinical significance. Among breast cancer patients who underwent a bone scan between and , patients presented with newly detected rib uptake at follow-up. The patients enrolled finally were those who had purely rib uptakes. The location, intensity, and final diagnosis of the uptake were evaluated by nuclear medicine physicians. A total of new instances of rib uptake were detected in follow-up bone scans of patients. These were more frequently located on the ipsilateral side of the breast cancer Among these, lesions in patients turned out to be benign fractures The proportion of metastases was significantly higher if the uptake was linear or if the patient had recurrence.

    It was marginally higher if the uptake was located in the posterior arc. The proportion of metastases within the radiation field was significantly lower in patients with a history of irradiation. Newly detected purely rib uptake on a follow-up bone scan in patients who have been treated for breast cancer is mostly because of fractures and rarely signals metastasis.

    However, if the patient has disease recurrence, metastasis should strongly be suspected, particularly when uptake is linear or located in the posterior arc. Adjuvant systemic therapy prolongs disease-free and overall survival in both pre- and postmenopausal patients. Available data shown benefit from multi-agent chemotherapy, prolonged tamoxifen treatment, and ovarian ablation, and that the combination of chemo- and endocrine therapy might be advantageous.

    In the International Ludwig Breast Cancer Study Group IBCSG initiated four complementary randomized controlled clinical trials to evaluate the roles of chemo-endocrine combinations or endocrine therapy alone in specific populations defined by risk for pre- and perimenopausal patients or by age for postmenopausal patients. The results at 10 and 13 years' median follow-up for these trials are summarized in this report and are compared to those of the Overview meta-analysis with regard to chemo-endocrine or endocrine therapy combinations.

    Furthermore, types of first relapses by sites and second malignant diseases are reported. In Trial I premenopausal patients with positive axillary nodes we studied the addition of low-dose continuous prednisone p to a cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-fluorouracil CMF combination. In Trial IV postmenopausal patients 66 to 80 years old were treated either by surgery alone or by surgery followed by 1 year prednisone and tamoxifen.

    In Trial I the addition of prednisone allowed a higher dose of cytotoxics to be administered compared with CMF alone. Despite this increased dose intensity, year disease-free survival DFS and overall survival OS were similar. The aim of this study is to investigate if weight fluctuation is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer PBC among women who gained weight in adult years.

    Women that were cancers -free at enrollment and diagnosed for the first time with breast cancer at age 50 or greater were considered cases. Controls were chosen from the subset of cancers -free women and matched to cases by years of follow-up and status of body mass index BMI at 25 years of age. Weight fluctuation was measured by the root-mean-square-error RMSE from a simple linear regression model for each woman with their body mass index BMI regressed on age started at 25 years while women with the positive slope from this regression were defined as weight gainers.

    Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. A total of women were included into the study. The data suggested that long-term weight fluctuation was significant risk factor for PBC among women who gained weight in adult years. This finding underscores the importance of maintaining lost weight and avoiding weight fluctuation. Long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women with primary breast cancer.

    Despite a fairly good prognosis, many breast-cancer patients suffer from symptoms such as anxiety, depression and fatigue, which may affect health-related quality of life and may persist for several years. The aim of the present study was to perform a long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women after primary breast cancer treatment. Three hundred and eighty two women with primary breast cancer were randomized to support group intervention or control group, in each group. Women in the intervention group participated in 1 week of intervention followed by 4 days of follow-up 2 months later.

    This is a long-term follow-up undertaken, in average, 6. After adjusting for treatment with chemotherapy, age, marriage, education and children at home, there was a significant improvement in physical, mental and total fatigue FQ , cognitive function, body image and future perspective EORTC QLQ C30 and BR23 in the intervention group compared with controls. The proportion of women affected by high anxiety and depression scores were not significantly different between the groups.

    Support intervention significantly improved cognitive function, body image, future perspective and fatigue, compared with to the findings in the control group. Fetal growth and subsequent risk of breast cancer : results from long term follow up of Swedish cohort. To investigate whether size at birth and rate of fetal growth influence the risk of breast cancer in adulthood.

    Uppsala Academic Hospital, Sweden. Size at birth was positively associated with rates of breast cancer in premenopausal women. Size at birth, particularly length and head circumference, is associated with risk of breast cancer in women aged breast cancer. Purpose Supervised exercise interventions can elicit numerous positive health outcomes in older breast cancer survivors. However, to maintain these benefits, regular exercise needs to be maintained long after the supervised program. This may be difficult, as in this transitional period i. Methods At the conclusion of a supervised exercise program, and 6-months later, 69 breast cancer survivors completed surveys examining their exercise behavior and key constructs from the Transtheoretical Model.

    Conclusion These findings suggest that self-efficacy and the behavioral processes of change, in particular, play an important role in exercise participation during the transition from a supervised to a home-based program among older breast cancer survivors. Determinants of physical activity among women treated for breast cancer in a 5-year longitudinal follow-up investigation. To estimate the 5-year trajectory of physical activity among women with breast cancer , and to evaluate biopsychosocial variables health status, physical symptoms, health-related quality of life HRQL , depressive symptoms, and social support , measured soon after breast cancer diagnosis, as predictors of the 5-year trajectory.

    Follow-up evaluations were conducted every 4 months during the first year and every 6 months during the subsequent 4 years 12 assessments total during the 5-year study. Mixed-effects modeling was utilized to estimate the baseline level of physical activity as well as rate of change over time. Measures of physical health status, HRQL, depressive symptoms, and social support were included as predictors of the physical activity trajectory.

    Physical activity increased gradually during the first 18 months, then declined steadily over the subsequent 42 months. Poor physical health, depressive symptoms, and lower emotional HRQL were associated with less physical activity. Higher family support was associated with a slower decline in physical activity in the latter 42 months of the study. Emotional HRQL following diagnosis with breast cancer appears to be important for sustaining physical activity in the first years following diagnosis.

    Physical activity interventions among breast cancer survivors should address depressive symptoms early in the course of treatment. A retrospective follow-up study]. The influence of diabetes mellitus on the course of breast cancer was investigated retrospectively in patients. Possible unfavourable prognostic factors like overweight, lipid disorders, age and menopausal status were considered as confounders in a Cochran-Mantel-Haensel analysis.

    There was no difference in primary tumor status and lymph node involvement between patients with diabetes mellitus and nondiabetic patients. Diabetic patients had more often overweight, lipid disorders and were older than nondiabetic patients. Metastatic disease was highly significant correlated with primary tumor status p less than 10 -6 lymph node involvement p less than 10 and diabetes mellitus p less than 10 Overweight, lipid disorders, age and menopausal status were not correlated with metastatic disease. A possible explanation of the correlation between diabetes mellitus and metastatic disease could be hyperinsulinism in type IIB diabetes.

    A type IIB diabetes in most of the patients included in this study is very plausible because of the correlation between overweight, lipid disorders, old age and diabetes mellitus. This type of diabetes is characterised by a relative resistence to insulin in the target tissues and a prolonged and exceeding insulin secretion. Experimental data demonstrate that insulin stimulates the growth of breast cancer cell in vivo and in vitro. Do breast implants adversely affect prognosis among those subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer? Findings from an extended follow-up of a Canadian cohort.

    Cosmetic breast implants may impair the ability to detect breast cancers. The aims of this study were to examine whether implants and implant characteristics are associated with more advanced breast tumors at diagnosis and poorer survival. Study population includes all invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up of the large Canadian Breast Implant Cohort. A total of women with cosmetic breast implants and women with other cosmetic surgery were diagnosed with breast cancer.

    These women were compared for stage at diagnosis using multinomial logistic regression models. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for breast cancer -specific mortality analyses. Comparisons were also conducted according to implant characteristics. No statistically significant differences in stage and breast cancer mortality were observed according to implant characteristics.

    At diagnosis, breast cancers tended to be at more advanced stages among women with cosmetic breast implants. Breast cancer -specific survival was lower in these women although the reduction did not reach statistical significance. Further investigations of the effect of breast implants on breast cancer prognosis are warranted.

    In the healthcare field, the ability to make economic forecasts requires knowledge of the costs of caring for major diseases. In the case of a semi-chronic condition like cancer , this cost covers all the episodes of care associated with a patient. An evaluation of a macro-economic method of calculating costs for treating non-metastatic cancer , covering all hospital episodes, is proposed. This method is based entirely on the use of annual hospital activity databases, linked to data concerning the incidence of cancer. It allows us to obtain the global cost of care for a neoplasm of a particular site, without the need to reconstruct the whole care pathway of the patients.

    The model was assessed by comparing it's own results, in the particular case of breast cancer to those issuing from a micro-economic follow-up of patients. Data for macro-economic calculation are extracted from the national French hospital database for the year and from cancer incidence data. The prospective study was done in , in a comprehensive cancer centre. Macro-economic calculation leads to a cost of 14, Euro, for primary breast cancer. Prospective follow-up showed a cost of 14, Euro data corrected, value. Accuracy and reliability of results were evaluated. This method may be extended to all types of neoplasms.

    This method cannot be used instead of follow-up studies, for cost-efficacy or cost-severity analysis, but may be interesting beyond economic forecasts, in the field of payment per pathology. Psychosocial adjustment among women with breast cancer stages I and II: six-year follow-up of consecutive patients. Semistructured interviews were conducted at a median of 6 years range, 5. Sixty-six women were available for the long-term follow-up study.

    No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups concerning psychosocial adjustment, as measured by the Social adjustment Scale SAS. Few data are available on long-term follow-up results with regard to psychosocial adjustment among women after breast cancer surgery. This study provides the important information that there are no differences in patient psychosocial adjustment that can be ascribed to the type of surgery at 6-year follow-up evaluation. Effects of supervised exercise on motivational outcomes in breast cancer survivors at 5-year follow-up.

    Short-term physical activity PA has beneficial effects on symptom management and quality of life, however, longer-term adherence is likely needed for improved disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors BCS. This study examined the effects of a supervised group exercise program on motivational outcomes and PA among BCS at 5-year follow-up. The original study was a two-armed, randomized controlled trial comparing a week supervised group exercise program to usual care among BCS. BCS for this follow-up study were contacted at 60 months postintervention and asked to complete assessments of motivational outcomes from the Theory of Planned Behavior and PA behavior using the Scottish Physical Activity Questionnaire.

    Overall, 87 participants provided 5-year follow-up data with no differences in participation by group. This trial provides suggestive evidence that a supervised exercise program has positive effects on motivational outcomes even after 5 years. Additional intervention strategies during follow-up may further improve long-term adherence and health outcomes in BCS. Breast cancer follow-up and management after primary treatment: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update.

    To provide recommendations on the follow-up and management of patients with breast cancer who have completed primary therapy with curative intent. An Update Committee reviewed the evidence to determine whether the recommendations were in need of updating. There were 14 new publications that met inclusion criteria: nine systematic reviews three included meta-analyses and five randomized controlled trials.

    After its review and analysis of the evidence, the Update Committee concluded that no revisions to the existing ASCO recommendations were warranted.